Wednesday, February 2, 2011


A resistor is a two-terminal electronic component which implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. When a voltage V is applied across the terminals of a resistor, a current I will flow through the resistor in direct proportion to that voltage. The reciprocal of the constant of proportionality is known as the resistance R, since, with a given voltage V, a larger value of R.
Resistors are common elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in most electronic equipment. Practical resistors can be made of various compounds and films, as well as resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy, such as nickel-chrome). Resistors are also implemented within integrated circuits, particularly analog devices, and can also be integrated into hybrid and printed circuits.
The electrical functionality of a resistor is specified by its resistance: common commercial resistors are manufactured over a range of more than 9 orders of magnitude. When specifying that resistance in an electronic design, the required precision of the resistance may require attention to the manufacturing tolerance of the chosen resistor, according to its specific application. The temperature coefficient of the resistance may also be of concern in some precision applications. Practical resistors are also specified as having a maximum power rating which must exceed the anticipated power dissipation of that resistor in a particular circuit: this is mainly of concern in power electronics applications. Resistors with higher power ratings are physically larger and may require heat sinking. In a high voltage circuit, attention must sometimes be paid to the rated maximum working voltage of the resistor.

The series inductance of a practical resistor causes its behavior to depart from ohms law; this specification can be important in some high-frequency applications for smaller values of resistance. In a low-noise amplifier or pre-amp the noise characteristics of a resistor may be an issue. The unwanted inductance, excess noise, and temperature coefficient are mainly dependent on the technology used in manufacturing the resistor. They are not normally specified individually for a particular family of resistors manufactured using a particular technology.] A family of discrete resistors is also characterized according to its form factor, that is, the size of the device and position of its leads (or terminals) which is relevent in the practical manufacturing of circuits using them.

Each color corresponds to a certain digit, progressing from darker to lighter colors, as shown in the chart below.

Color 1st band 2nd band 3rd band (multiplier) 4th band (tolerance) Temp. Coefficient
Black 0 0 ×100

Brown 1 1 ×101 ±1% (F) 100 ppm
Red 2 2 ×102 ±2% (G) 50 ppm
Orange 3 3 ×103
15 ppm
Yellow 4 4 ×104
25 ppm
Green 5 5 ×105 ±0.5% (D)
Blue 6 6 ×106 ±0.25% (C)
Violet 7 7 ×107 ±0.1% (B)
Gray 8 8 ×108 ±0.05% (A)
White 9 9 ×109


×10−1 ±5% (J)

×10−2 ±10% (K)

±20% (M)


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